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DreamStone Gem Glossary


Malum granatum , Latin for garnet, means red pomegranate seeds. Garnet is a group of minerals which have a similar crystal structure but not the same exact chemical composition. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, garnet is 6.5-7.5. This wide-ranging family of gemstones can be found in many colors (red, purple, orange, green, yellow, etc.), but it is most commonly seen in a deep red. This is the birthstone for January.


Amethyst is the most valued and recognizable gemstone of the quartz family. It is found in a range of colors from violet to pale red-violet. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, amethyst is 7. This is the birthstone for February.


Aqua means water, marine means blue in latin. The aquamarine is a member of the beryl family. This stone is known for its clear sky-blue color but it can also be found in a range of dark blues to blue-greens. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the aquamarine is 7.5-8. This is the birthstone for March.


Diamond, “adamas” in Greek, means invincible or indestructible. It is made of crystallized carbon, the only gem composed of one element. The most popular diamonds are traditionally colorless, but they can also be found in other colors (These diamonds are known as “fancies”). On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the diamond is the world’s hardest substance graded at 10. This is the birthstone for April.


Emerald is a member of the Beryl family. It is most commonly seen in a green hue but can also be found in a bluish-green hue. On Mohs’ scale of hardness,  the emerald is graded at 7.5-8. This is the birthstone for May.


A pearl is a lustrous, organic, ocean gem produced by saltwater oysters, freshwater mussels, and by some other shellfish. Pearls can appear in a range of colors (white, cream, pink, silver, peach, gold, green, blue and blue-ish black). Pearls form in mollusks in a variety of natural shapes (round, off-round, baroque, rice-shaped, button or disk-shaped), plus many shapes can be created by the insertion of specially shaped beads inside the mollusks. Oh Mohs’ scale of hardness, the pearl is 2.5 – 4.5. This is the birthstone for June.


The root word of Ruby is ruber, Latin for red, and it describes the purest beauty of red imaginable. Ruby is part of the Corundum family. It exhibits colors in a range of pinks and reds. The most desired color of Ruby is pigeon’s blood red (pure red with a hint of blue-ish purple). On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the ruby is graded at 9. This is the birthstone for July.


The Peridot is part of the Olivine mineral family. They are found in a range of vibrant greens, yellow-green, olive green, and brownish green. On the Mohs’ scale of hardness, peridot is 6.5-7. This is the birthstone for August.


Sapphires are part of the corundum family, they are distinguished by their gorgeous rich blue color (jewelers call this color "cornflower blue"). Sapphires can also be found in a variety of other colors, these are often referred to as “fancy sapphires”. At 9 on Mohs’ scale of hardness, sapphires are second only to diamonds in hardness. The name sapphire is said to derive from the Greek Sanskrit sanipriya, meaning “dear to the planet Saturn.” This stone is said to embody the many colors of the sky during sunrise and sunset. This is the birthstone for September.


Tourmaline is a breathtaking mineral gemstone. This is one of the only gemstones that can be found with two or more colors in one crystal. Tourmalines are available in one of the widest color ranges in the world of gemstones (green, red, blue, purple, pink, yellow, orange, brown, colorless, white, black, and even multicolored). The Tourmaline is known as the “electric stone” because it can become statically charged when heated or rubbed. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the tourmaline is 7.5. This is the birthstone for October.


Citrine is a stunning stone that is part of the quartz family. While its name refers to a lemon yellow color, it can be found in light yellow, deep yellow, orange, and orange brown hues. Some say that Citrines release an enjoyable lemon scent while being cut (the only gemstone known to have a scent). Citrines get their aroma from being soaked in a lemon-lime bath prior to cutting (this step is known to make Citrines easier to cut). On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the citrine is 7. This is the birthstone for November.


Topaz is the birthstone of December. It is a gemstone found in many colors. The topaz can be found in yellow, orange, red-ish brown, light to dark blue, pink, red, purple, green, and colorless. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, it is graded at 8. This is the birthstone for December.


Tanzanite is a variety of the zoisite family. It can be found in shades of blue, green, yellow, pink, and brown (virtually all tanzanites left in the market are heat treated to produce the much desired shades of deep blue and blue-violet). On Mohs’ scale of hardness, tanzanites are graded 6.5-7. The main source of all the world’s tanzanite is in Tanzania.


Turquoise can be found in both translucent and opaque forms. They exhibit a range of colors from light blue to green. Some cultures consider the turquoise as a “lucky stone” and is recognized as a stone of courage, success, and romance. On Mohs’ scale of hardness, the turquoise is graded at 5-6.

Jade, is a form of jadeite. The Imperial Jade, a vibrant green, is the most desired color of jade. Jades can be found in shades of green, off-white, violet, peach, blue, and black. Known as the stone of heaven, jade is a hard stone that has been treasured by the Chinese and other Asian cultures for over 7,000 years. Jade is also known to be a stone of luck and fortune.



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